In the fall of 1 73 1 he withdrew into the interior Skippack, United States - The Historical magazine and notes and queries concerning the antiquities, history and biography of America Volume yr. Presbyterian Church, in this country. William Tennent , the elder, was known as the Patriarch of Neshaminy, Pennsylvania, where he established Princeton, United States - The descendants of James Carrell and Sarah Dungan, his wife William Tennent , at one time pastor of that church.
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It is now associated with Providence, and is Bucks County, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom - Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States, Volume He was married in to Caroline Kingsessing, United States - Cyclopedia of New Jersey biography Volume Presbyterian church in this country. A history of the Presbyterian church in America : from its origin until the year There was a remarkable stir of a religious kind in Gloucester county, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom - Biographical sketches of the founder, and principal alumni of the Log college : together with an account of the revivals of religion, under their It was a day of great deadness, Newcastle county, Delaware, United States - Treat, William Tennent , Finley, Green, Newark, United States - History of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, including an account of its original exploration, its relation to the settlements of New Jersey and Delaware, its erection Hartsville, Pennsylvania, United States - List of inscriptions on tombstones and monuments in Ceylon, of historical or local interest, with an obituary of persons uncommemorated This steady refusal of promotion, which would have Downing, Sri Lanka - An American biographical and historical dictionary [microform] : containing an account of the lives, characters, and writings of the most eminent persons in North An historical sketch of the state of American medicine before the Revolution : being the annual address delivered before the Medical Society of the Virginia, and a native, Dr.
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John Tennent , a respectable physician of Port Royal, Virginia, who brought into view the virtues England, England, United Kingdom - Freehold, N. He ultimately succeeded William Tennent to Dr. Wheelock, in Speaking of the land donated by the State, Burlington county, New Jersey, United States - Scotland, Scotland, United Kingdom - History of the Old Tennent Church Whitefield preached, with whose labors William Tennent , the pastor, was in sympathy, see Belchers Life of whitefield, p.
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Collection Newspapers 34, Books 27, Magazines Obituaries Access rights Don't show Premium entries. Language English 62, French Spanish Lithuanian Estonian 6. Dutch 5. German 2. Portuguese 2. Norwegian 1. Swedish 1. Search your ancestors. Contains at least one of these first names. By the s among revivalists the plain style had become virtually extinct and preaching almost fully extemporaneous. One other methodological aspect of McGready's preaching indicates his traditionalist nature: His use of music.
Throughout the eighteenth century, music had been an essential part of revivalism as the hymnodic revolution swept the evangelical wing of Protestantism. In early ninettenth-century America, however, hymn-writing took another turn as many "self-styled tunesmiths" abandoned the intricately worded hymns of Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley for the easily remembered and theologically simplistic and often anti-Calvinistic choruses of the frontier camp meeting.
These simpler hymns and choruses were soon gathered into books and began being published by the turn of the nineteenth century. McGready in his sermons continually used hymns and lyrics to reinforce a theological point, but instead of using these new choruses he stuck to the more intricate eighteenth-century hymns of Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley , Samuel Stennett and Anne Steele, and Bishop John Newton, an evangelical English Anglican who had been closely associated with Whitefield and the Wesley brothers.
In addition tot he authorship of the hymns, the wording, syntax, and phraseology of the hymns he quoted suggest an eighteenth-century pattern. The versification is often complex and intricate, and the words used uncommon.
For instance, he offered this verse to illustrate Christ's work of salvation:. Another verse he quoted used phrases like "etherial waste," "pearly portals," and "primogenial light," none of which would have been everyday phrases on the Kentucky frontier. Patterns and preferences like sermon style and music selection point to McGready's traditionalist nature, but his actions during the Cumberland schism of best illustrate the heart and soul of James McGready.
For a variety of reasons related to the Great Revival and revivalism but too intricate to describe here, a group of ministers in the Cumberland Presbytery of Kentucky, of which McGready was a key member, found themselves at theological odds with the Synod of Kentucky by late In general terms the synod had concerns about the theological orthodoxy and training of a rather large number of exhorters which the Cumberland Presbytery had licensed to take care of the new Presbyterian converts of the Great Revival.
To investigate these concerns, the synod established a commission in the fall of , the opening step in the Cumberland schism. After meeting with the commission in December , half the presbytery, the revivalist half, decided to defy the orders of the synod to submit to church discipline. The commission had wanted to reexamine the exhorters, but the revivalist ministers refused to allow this, sensing an attack on presbyterial rights and on the revival itself.
Defying the commission and the synod, the revivalist majority of the Cumberland Presbytery formed itself into "The Council" so as to better plan their defensive strategy. By the spring of McGready, who had originally sided with the revivalist majority, faced the most difficult decision of his career. He could continue to side with the revivalists and defy church authority, or he could submit, but in so submitting turn his back on his revivalist friends and place himself again under a synod stacked with often bitter non-revivalists who even then were hatching a plot to smear his good name.
Philosophy and Religion
James McGready, who had worked his entire career to reignite Presbyterian revivalism, chose submission. Had he been an innovator and changer, had he wanted to ride the wave of the future, he would not have submitted to the Kentucky Synod, but would have joined his former colleagues who soon went on to form the revivalist, but Arminian-leaning, Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
Anti-authoritarianism was one of the strongest impulses of the age-in politics, in society, and in religion. That he would choose submission and tradition over rebellion and innovation at the climax of his life speaks to his overall outlook as clearly as any set of sermons or theological genealogy could ever do. The last decade of McGready's life does not appear to have been the happiest one, although he continued to follow his calling and preached in season and out of season until his death in There he pastored a church and from there undertook numerous church-sponsored missionary trips into the Indiana and Illinois regions, establishing churches and holding meetings wherever he could.
McGready's heritage, faith, and theology did not play out in the ivory towers of academia, but in the laboratory of life. One way to detect confusion and contradiction within someone is to compare his life with his ideas and note the continuity or lack thereof between the two. McGready's heritage, his life, and his ideas worked together well. Raised, educated, and converted in a traditional Presbyterian revivalist setting, McGready remained true to that heritage throughout his career.
In working for revivalism he drew on the theological and ceremonial traditions of his Scottish forebears. By rejecting the new Cumberland Church he indicated his theological allegiance to the Calvinism of the old church. As a missionary in Indiana late in life he toiled thanklessly not to help create an earthly paradise but to assist God's elect in finding the heavenly one. In all these things McGready worked not as an innovator and a changer but as a preserver and practitioner of a two-hundred-year-old history of Presbyterian revivalism.
Other ministers from other denominations during and after McGready's life appropriated and changed the revivalist theology and forms used by McGready and created the modern American revival-always emotional, often scripted, sometimes artificially engineered, and, more often than not, Arminian. By that group James McGready has often been looked to as a father and brother, but in that group he does not fit.
Historians can learn much from McGready's life about the period in which he lived and the power of the ideas unleashed in America at the turn of the nineteenth century. When the American people loosed themselves from the political bonds of deference and Federalism and took up the egalitarian ideas first of Jefferson and later of Jackson, they apparently loosed themselves from similar religious bonds as well.
In that maelstrom of change known as the early national period McGready labored to bring salvation to the people using theology and forms handed down to him from previous generations just as John Adams sought to bring political order to the country using the type of deferential politics known to his colonial fathers.
Neither was successful against the egalitqarian, tradition-breaking tide. Adams was dumped from the presidency in ; McGready was ejected from the mainstream of revivalism after and died a largely forgotten man and part of an increasingly forgotten tradition of Calvinist Presbyterian revivalism. McGready's career reached its heights in the early nineteenth century, but his heart and mind properly belonged to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Henretta et al.
See, for instance, Frederick M. Bruce, Jr. For more information about these ministers and their schools see J. David Caldwell, D.
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Leonard J. See also Marilyn J. Four authors in this century have used the exact phrase "modified Calvinism" to describe McGready's theology. Forty-two of McGready's sermons were published in the early s by James Smith, at the time a prominent Cumberland Presbyterian. Smith never knew McGready but learned about him while briefly serving as pastor of McGready's last charge in Henderson, Kentucky.
Probably one of McGready's four daughters gave manuscript copies of these sermons, and more, to Smith, who had expressed interest in publishing them.
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Although the sermons offer the possibility of a fairly complete view of McGready's theology, they do not allow for any analysis of change of opinions over time since almost none of the sermons are dated in any way. James Smith Nashville: J. Smith's Steam Press, , preface, and James D.
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