Double c is.
D Is pronounced in Portuguese as in English. F Is pronounced always as in English. Gua sounds almost like our wa : example, guar da, pronounce gwdrda. The letter h is never aspirated nor pronounced at the beginnning of words, as hbra, an hour ; homem, a man : but, according to the modern orthography, all those words are written without an k. H when preceded by a c, makes a sound with it like our ch. See the letter C, and also the letters L and N.
Is pronounced like our j consonant, K. The Portuguese have no such letter as k. L Is pronounced in Portuguese as in English.
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M Is pronounced as in English, when placed before a vowel with which it forms a syllable -, but, when it is at the end of words, and preceded by the letter e, it forms in Portuguese a nasal sound like that of the French words vin, wine ; pain, bread ; except seem, tbem, from the verbs soar, toar, and some others. N being before a vowel with which it forms a syl- lable, is pronounced as in English ; otherwise, it only gives a nasal sound to the vowel that precedes it.
N before h has the same sound as gn in Italian, or in the French words Espagne, Allemagne. P and ph are pronounced as in English. Q Is pronounced like k : example, quero, I am will- ing, pronounce kero. R and double r are pronounced as in English. S and ss are pronounced as in English. V Is pronounced as in English. X between two vowels is pronounced like gz in the words exactamente, exornar ; except Alexandre, Paixam, Puxo, baxo, and some other words, that may be learnt by use. Z Is pronounced as in English, but at the end of words it is pronounced like s, as rapaz, boy ; Fran-.
They also set their til over the vowels, ao, aa, in the end of words, thus ao, aa. See what we have said above of m at the end of words preceded by an a. Of Diphthongs. The meeting of many vowels in one and the same syllable constitute what is called Diphthongs, and they are the following in the Portuguese language. Aa, as in magaa, an apple. Ae, as in caes, dog. Ay, as in pay, father. At, as in mais, more. Ao, as in pao, wood. Au, as in causa, a cause. Eo, as in ceo, heaven. Ey, as in rey, king. Oy, as in boy, an ox ; fby, he was.
Iu, as viuva, a widow, pronounce, vi-uva. Oo, as cooper agam, co-operation, pronounce, co- cperagao. Ui, as rw, a ruin, pronounce ru-ina. Of the Articles. THOSE particles called Articles, are properly prepositions, commonly put before nouns, to shew their gender, number, and case.
These articles are definite or indefinite. Of the Definite Article, The definite article marks the gender, number, and case, of the nouns which it precedes. The Portuguese has two, viz. The definite article has five cases, the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative ; because the vocative in the nouns is designed and preceded merely by the particle o. The Declension of the Masculine Article o. Nominative, o, the. Nominative, os, the. Genitive, do, of the. Genitive, dos, of the.
Dative, ao, or o, to the. Dative, aos, or os, to the. Accusative, ao, or o, the. Accusative, aos, or os, the.
Ablative, do, from or by the. Ablative, dos, from or by the. The Declension of the Feminine Article a. Nominative, a, the.
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Nominative, as, the. Genitive, da, of the. Genitive, das, of the. Dative, a, to the. Dative, as, to the. Accusative, a, the. Accusative, as, the. Ablative, da, from the. Ablative, das, from or by the. Of the Indefinite Article. The indefinite article may be put before the mas- culine as well as the feminine gender, before the plural as well as the singular number.
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The indefinite article has but four cases, the geni- tive, dative, accusative, and ablative. One may put de before a noun masculine as well as a feminine, as hkma corba de rey, a king's crown ; the word rey is masculine ; hum chapeo de pdiha, a hat of straw; the word palha' is of the feminine gender. Declension of the Indefinite Article.
Genitive, de of. Accusative, a. Dative, a, to. Ablative, de, from. Whenever we meet with of and to in Eng- lish, followed by the, remember they are the indefi- nite articles, and then we must make use of the in- definite article de, or a, in Portuguese. When the verb is in the infinitive mood, and serves as nominative to the following verb, they put the article o before it ; as o come? When after the preposition with, which in Portu- guese is expressed by com, we find the articles the, or a pronoun possessive, as with the, with my, Sec.
Of the Nouns. THE Portuguese nouns have various termina- tions, as will appear hereafter.
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They have but two genders, the masculine and feminine. The Portuguese nouns have no variation of cases, like the Latin, and the article only distinguishes the case. Of nouns ending in a ; and of their declension. O queens.
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Of the Gender of Nouns ending in a. Nouns ending in a are generally of the feminine gender ; as rosa, a. Observe, that the plural of nouns ending in a is formed by adding the letter s to the singular ; as likewise the plural of all nouns that terminate in vowels. Observe also, that nouns ending in aa are of the feminine gender, and form their plural as those ending in a.
Of the Gender of Nouns ending in e. The exceptions axtfe, faith ; fonte, a fountain ; chcive, a key ; tone, a tower ; dve, a fowl ; came, flesh or meat ; genie, people ; mbrte, death ; neve, snow ; noite, night ; pbnte, a bridge ; peste, plague ; parte, part ; serpente, a serpent -, lebre, a hare. Of the Gender of the Nouns ending in i. Of Nouns ending in o. Except mo-, a ship ; filho, a. Of Nouns ending in u. All nouns ending in u are masculine ; asperu, a turkey ; grou, a crane. Of Nouns ending in y. All nouns ending in al, are masculine; as sinal, a sign or token ; sal, salt.
You must except cal, lime, which is feminine, and has no plural. Nouns ending in ar are of the masculine gen- der ; as ar, air. The plural of these nouns is formed by adding es to the singular, as ares from ar.
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