They passed segregation laws and imposed second-class status on blacks in a system known as Jim Crow that lasted until the civil rights movement. Political activities on behalf of equality often centered around transportation issues, such as segregation on streetcars and railroads. Lynch mob attacks on blacks, especially in the South, rose at the end of the 19th century. The perpetrators were rarely or never arrested or convicted. Nearly 3, African Americans and 1, whites were lynched in the United States , mostly from to The peak year was The frequency of lynchings and the episodes that sparked them varied from state to state as functions of local race relations.
Lynching was higher in the context of worsening economic conditions for poor rural whites in heavily black counties, especially the low price of cotton in the s. Wells — used her newspaper in Memphis Tennessee to attack lynchings; fearful for her life, she fled to the more peaceful precincts of Chicago in where she continued her one-person crusade. There were 82 lynchings in , and 10 in In the mainstream national and local media of the late 19th century, "Blacks were persistently stereotyped as criminals, savages, or comic figures.
They were superstitious, lazy, violent, immoral, the butt of humor, and the source of danger to civilized life. Washington, the young college president from Alabama, became famous for his articulate challenges to the extremely negative stereotypes. According to his biographer Robert J. Norrell, Washington:. Much of the black political leadership in this area came from the ministry, and from Union Civil War veterans.
The white political leadership featured veterans and lawyers.
Ambitious young black men had a difficult time becoming lawyers, with few exceptions such as James T. The upper class among the black population was largely mulatto and had been free before the war. During Reconstruction, 19 of the 22 black members of Congress were mulattoes. These wealthier, mixed-race blacks represented the majority of the leaders in the civil rights movement of the 20th century as well. In , Anna J.
It led to many speeches where she called for civil rights and woman's rights. The book advanced a vision of self-determination through education and social uplift for African-American women. Its central thesis was that the educational, moral, and spiritual progress of black women would improve the general standing of the entire African-American community. She says that the violent natures of men often run counter to the goals of higher education, so it is important to foster more female intellectuals because they will bring more elegance to education.
The essays in A Voice from the South also touched on a variety of topics, from racism and the socioeconomic realities of black families to the administration of the Episcopal Church. Frederick Douglass — , an escaped slave, was a tireless abolitionist before the war. He was an author, publisher, lecturer and diplomat afterward. His biographer argues:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the movement in the late 19th century. For the movement in the early 20th century, see civil rights movement — For the midth-century movement, see civil rights movement.
Black schools Historically black colleges and universities Greek and fraternal organizations Stepping. Studies Literature Art. Martin Luther King Jr. Middle class Upper class Billionaires. Institutions Black church. Black theology Womanist theology. LGBT community. Dialects and languages. Gullah Louisiana Creole.
Main article: Reconstruction Era.
An African American History Bibliography of Authors and Texts • BlackPast
See also: History of the United States — Main article: Exodus of Further information: Negro Republican Party. Further information: Lily-white movement and Black-and-tan faction. Further information: Memphis riots of and History of Memphis, Tennessee. Further information: Black school. Further information: Nadir of American race relations. Main article: Jim Crow laws. Main article: Lynching in the United States.
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Main article: Timeline of the civil rights movement. United States portal. Basic Civitas Books. Duke University Press.
Publishers Agency. Litwack; August Meier, eds. Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century. Fitzgerald LSU Press. The Scalawag In Alabama Politics, Irwin and Anthony Patrick O'Brien. Black Labor in Cotton and Sugarcane Farming, — Rabinowitz, Race Relations in the Urban South, — pp , African-American Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs.
The Social Survey in Historical Perspective, — pp The Education of Blacks in the South, — September Erik Brooks, and Glenn L. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia Greenwood, pp describes the 66 colleges opened by ; most are still active today.
The College-bred Negro America. A historiography of gender and Black colleges. Johns Hopkins University.
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Archived from the original on Retrieved Moss, Dangerous donations: Northern philanthropy and southern Black education, — Hampton Institute Press. Eric Lincoln and Lawrence H. Stowell Oxford UP. Redkey, "Bishop Turner's African Dream. Kidd; Barry Hankins Baptists in America: A History. An American Dilemma.
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Rabinowitz, "From exclusion to segregation: Southern race relations, — Morgan Kousser, "Plessy v. Vann Woodward, The strange career of Jim Crow ; 3rd ed. The Struggle for Black Equality 3rd ed. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fischer, "A pioneer protest: the New Orleans street-car controversy of Moral Minorities and the Making of American Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
February 10, San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco. Retrieved 28 June Crusade for Justice. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Booker T. Washington
Retrieved July 26, Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute. Fitzhugh Lynching in the new South. University of Illinois Press. Beck and Stewart E. Wells, — , with primary and secondary documents. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson Foner's introduction is paraphrasing the 2nd edition of Logan's book. Norrel Walters and Robert C.
An African American History Bibliography of Authors and Texts
Smith, African American Leadership p A Voice from the South: Introduction. Accessed March 16, Further information: Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era. African American topics. Board of Education Dred Scott v. Washington Oprah Winfrey Malcolm X. Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, educator Lucy C. Beneath the space designed for recording personal family records are ten more prominent educators, writers, editors, entertainers, and political and religious leaders, illustrating an impressive degree of accomplishment for the first post-slavery generation.
Topic Booker T. Cook: Female Mary V.
Related Booker T. Washington: Black Leadership in the Age of Jim Crow (Library of African American Biography)
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